Definition bekanntschaft. Bekanntschaft

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Definition bekanntschaft

For example, some might agree that we do have some knowledge by acquaintance and appeal to such knowledge in the dualism debate in the philosophy of mind see the entry on , without endorsing the claim that all knowledge or justified belief must depend, ultimately, on acquaintance. This naturally leads to the question, must this judgment of fit itself be justified? As introduced by Russell, the distinction sometimes seems to be that between noninferential or foundational knowledge on the one hand, and inferential or nonfoundational knowledge on the other. Different views of the reference-fixing factor have been proposed, with the main suggestions being that reference is fixed by one or more of the following: a demonstration, understood as an act of pointing or gesturing or some similar behavior; an intention to point or refer to an object of a certain kind, or an object satisfying some description; or some appropriate causal or spatial relation e. Try or get the SensagentBox With a , visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent. Foundationalism regarding justification is often motivated by some version of the regress argument.

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Definition bekanntschaft

By contrast, one can have acquaintance with items that are not truths, items that cannot be said to be true or false. Again, like all acquaintance theorists, he takes the sort of awareness underlying all foundationally justified belief to be unmediated by any belief or representation, and to guarantee the existence of its object: one cannot be directly aware of something that does not exist. Reverso offers you a German definition dictionary to search Bekanntschaft and thousands of other words. This second problem will be taken up later, in. Standing phenomenal concepts are still very much like direct phenomenal concepts in that the content is essentially tied to phenomenal properties.

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Bekanntschaft

Definition bekanntschaft

In at least some such cases, the pain does not disappear entirely, even though one no longer notices it. Foundationalism regarding knowledge can be motivated by a parallel version of the regress argument, put in terms of knowledge rather than justification. In fact, I think the relation of subject and object which I call acquaintance is simply the converse of the relation of object and subject which constitutes presentation. Her behaviour at the beginning of their acquaintance had been too extreme. We said earlier that acquaintance is not itself judgmental or propositional, and so does not have truth value—it is a form of awareness of something, not awareness that something is so-and-so. Acquaintance is typically taken to be simple and thus indefinable.

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Bekanntschaft : definition of Bekanntschaft and synonyms of Bekanntschaft (German)

Definition bekanntschaft

BonJour 2003 seems to hold this view. Grammatically at least, there is no justification for the once frequently heard criticism of used as a verb, esp. While the distinction between propositional and doxastic justification is important, to simplify discussion, we do not distinguish carefully between these below. The acquaintance theorists seems to have an answer: acquaintance with facts is designed to end the potentially vicious regress of justification. Russell seems to be extending this to knowledge by acquaintance: it is knowledge of something, and logically independent of knowledge that something is so-and-so.

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Bekanntschaft definition

Definition bekanntschaft

This is important both because doing so can illuminate the role that acquaintance plays in securing knowledge which arguably requires justified belief and because we may be interested in its role as a source of justification even when we fall short of knowledge. If I am acquainted with the proposition or thought that I am in pain then I am acquainted with something that has truth value, even though acquaintance itself is not to be understood as propositional in nature. To dance a waltz is not to do something or perform some act, viz. On this view, awareness is not a relation between the self and something else, but is an intrinsic feature of the mental state itself, though one that is still relational in the sense that it is directed at something; and what one is aware of is just the specific character or content of that state of awareness. For an interesting defense of this view, see Forrest 2005.

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Knowledge by Acquaintance vs. Description (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Definition bekanntschaft

Some may be inclined to deny that one can have a pain without being in some way aware or conscious of the pain. So, while Fumerton takes the fundamental awareness or acquaintance to be a relation, BonJour takes it to be an intrinsic feature of all experiences or conscious states. Talk of descriptions naturally suggests the use of language, and as we have just seen, Russell himself often characterizes descriptions in linguistic terms, e. It is difficult to find an answer from Russell. On the standard view, the content of a token indexical concept is constituted by or essentially tied to the actual referent, much as the content of the concept water is constituted by or essentially tied to the actual referent in the environment at least according to content-externalism about natural-kind concepts. Even when our evidence for the presence of physical objects seems as good as we can get, then, we are not acquainted with physical objects or their constituents. McGrew endorses classical foundationalism, taking all our empirical knowledge to rest on a foundation of knowledge that is had by acquaintance or direct awareness, and in particular on demonstrative beliefs.

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Bekanntschaft definition

Definition bekanntschaft

For classical foundationalists like Russell, all knowledge of truths ultimately depends on foundational knowledge of truths acquired by acquaintance. Intuitively, the belief is not justified. So, while I cannot be in pain without being conscious of or aware of the pain, I can be in pain without attending specifically or selectively to the pain. To summarize, there is a great deal of agreement among philosophers who adopt the acquaintance approach: they all take there to be an epistemically fundamental awareness that is unmediated and nonconceptual, a form of awareness that secures the existence of its object. This view of how we get from acquaintance to noninferential knowledge or justified belief is problematic, however.

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Knowledge by Acquaintance vs. Description (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Definition bekanntschaft

For BonJour, conscious states are in a sense, as Chisholm might put it, self- presenting, but they are not self- representing. Suppose that I am acquainted with my having a headache, acquainted with the thought that I have a headache, and acquainted with the correspondence between the thought that I have a headache and my having a headache. This response seems problematic, however, for we now have at least one sort of belief or judgment, the higher-order judgment of fit itself, that is noninferentially justified without there being any awareness or recognition that its propositional content fits the facts. Taylor 2013 discusses a number of phenomenological and theoretical advantages to identifying acquaintance with attentive awareness. Some worry that iv is no better, and possibly worse, than the alternatives: how could a belief be justified, or be an instance of knowledge, without depending on other beliefs? We said above that what distinguishes the classical, Russellian notion of acquaintance is, minimally, that i it is a non-intentional form of awareness: acquaintance with something does not consist in forming any judgment or thought about it, or applying any concepts to it; and ii it is real relation requiring the existence of its relata; one cannot be acquainted with some thing, property or fact that does not exist. I made several good contacts in London. By definition, any belief B that is an instance of nonfoundational or inferential justification must depend on some inference or inferential relation to other beliefs.

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